References

1 See The Geography of Strabo, 17.786.
2 Fields of dolmens still may be seen in many parts of northern Jordan. The most notable ones are in the foothills of the Jordan valley to the east of Damiah bridge, in the foothills east of Talailat Ghassul, around Irbid, and in the hill country near Hasban.
3 H. R. Hall, The Ancient History of the Near East (London: Methuen & Co., 1963), pp. 183-184.
4 Also called the Zuzim.
5 Elmer W. K. Mould, Essentials of Bible History (New York: The Ronald Press, 1966), pp. 29-30.
6 Genesis 13:6.
7 Genesis 13:9.
8 Following the Hebrews' conquest of Canaan, Caleb renamed it Hebron.
9 Jude 7 New American Standard Bible.
10 Merrill F. Unger, Biblical Demonology (Wheaton, IL: Van Kampen Press, 1952), p. 50.
11 G. Ch. Aalders, Bible Student's Commentary, Vol. I, Genesis (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1981), p. 283.
12 Deuteronomy 3:13.
13 The time of this first invasion is established from certain scriptures. When Isaac was born, Abraham was one hundred years old and Ishmael thirteen. So Ishmael was born when Abraham was eighty-seven. Chedor-laomer's second raid occurred before Ishmael was even conceived by Hagar, Sarah's maidservant. Genesis 14:5 says his second raid took place fourteen years after the first raid. Thus when Chedorlaomer first con-quered the five cities, Abraham was no more than seventy-three (87-14=73), and still lived in Assyria. When he left for Canaan, he was seventy-five (12:4).
14Elam lay east of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers on Babylonia's southeastern border. The scriptures identify it with Persia, but, remarks Robert Candlish, "it may here denote that part of Persia which was known in ancient history by the name of Elymais." Studies in Genesis (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregal Publications, 1982), p. 210.
15 Marcus Dods, The Expositor's Bible, Vol. I (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdm^ns, 1940), p. 35.
16 See Targum of Palestine on Genesis 14.
17 "The worship of this Syrian goddess was, though under a variety of forms, almost universal in patriarchal times, and her statue in the sanctuaries of all the Rephaite people was that of a cow-headed female, bearing on her head a globe between two horns, as is still seen on Phoenician coins and antique gems. It may be added that the Rephaim wore helmets surmounted by a metallic globe between horns, in honour of their national deity." Robert Jamieson, A. R. Fausset and David Brown, A Commentary on the Old and New Testaments, Vol. I (Chicago: Moody Press, 1945), p. 137.
18 "The best indications which the limited archaeology of this considerable region has been able to provide do confirm, indeed, that from Ashtaroth to Edom the King's Highway passed through a region that was throughout densely settled during this period with which we are presumably concerned, Middle Bronze Age I, or perhaps the earlier part of Middle Bronze E" Bruce Vawter, On Genesis (New York: Doubleday, 1977), pp. 191-192.
19 Probably modern Kureyat, located ten miles north of Arnon and ten miles east of the Dead Sea.
20 In this campaign, Chedorlaomer journeyed as far south as El-paran, which most scholars identify with the modern archaeological site Ezion Geber, on the Gulf of Aqabah.
21 Genesis 14:8-9 NASB.
22 Because masses of bituminous matter could often be seen floating on it, the Salt Sea in ancient times was also called Asphaltic Lake.
23 Nelson Glueck, Rivers in the Desert (New York: Farrar, Straus, and Cudahy, 1959), pp. 11, 72-73.
24 That Mamre, Eshcol, and Aner accompanied Abraham on this mission can be proved from the Genesis record. For when the grateful king of Sodom urged Abraham to keep the goods he had recovered from Chedorlaomer for himself, as a reward for returning his people, the patriarch replied: "I will accept nothing but what my men have eaten and the share that belongs to the men who went with me--to Aner, Eshcol and Mamre. Let them have their share" (Genesis 14:24).
25 Amos2:l,9 NASB.
26 Cyril Graham, "The Ancient Bashan and the Cities of Og," Cambridge Essays, 1858. Quoted by J. L. Porter in The Giant Cities of Bashan (New York: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1873), pp. 85-86.
27 No reference given.
28 Lee, Giant: The Pictorial History, p. 41.
29 Aalders, Bible Student's Commentary, Vol. I, p. 283.
30 Numbers 10:11-12.
31 But known today as Ain Kadis, i.e., "Holy Spring."
32 Deuteronomy 1:20-22 New International Version.
33 Tan. Shelah, 12.
34 Ibid.
35 Deuteronomy 9:1-2.
36 Jamieson, Fausset and Brown, A Commentary on the Old and New Testaments, Vol. I (Chicago: Moody Press, 1945), p. 546.
37 Numbers 13:22.
38 Samuel Bochart, Geographia Sacra, 1692, p. 362.
39 Joshua 11:21.
40 Joshua 11:22.
41See Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia, Vol. 1 (Chicago: Moody Press, 1975), p. 64, and The Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol. 1 (New York: KTAV Publishing House, 1901), p. 552. Also see Proverbs 1:9 and Song of Solomon 4:9.
42
43 Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia, Vol. 1, p. 64.
44 Flavius Josephus, The Antiquities of the Jews, translated by William Whitson (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1987), 5.2.3.
45 Jamieson, Fausset and Brown, Commentary on the Old and New Testaments, Vol. I, p. 547.
46 Num. R. xvi. and Tan., Shelah, 7, ed. Buber, 11.
47 George M. Lamsa, translator of the Arabic Peshitta into English, ex-plains that in the Middle East, "branches of vine are often cut down with grapes on them and carried from place to place. The branch with its fresh leaves helps to preserve the grapes in the hot climate." Old Testament Light (Philadelphia: A. J. Holman Co., 1967), p. 198.
48 Numbers 13:27 NIV.
49 Numbers 13:28, 31-33 NIV.
50 Numbers 13:30 NIV.
51 Deuteronomy 1:29-31 NIV.
52 Werner Keller, The Bible As History (New York: William Morrow and Co., 1956), p. 135.
53 Josephus, Antiquities, 3.14.3.
54 Numbers 14:21-34.
55 Numbers 26:64-65.
56 Lee, Giant: The Pictorial History, pp. 53-54.
57 Goliath's height is given as six cubits and a span. The common cubit is eighteen inches and a span half that amount. According to Unger's Bible Dictionary, "Skeletons recovered in Palestine attest the fact that men as tall as Goliath once lived in that general region" (p. 419).
58 Targum on 1 Samuel 4:11.
59 Romantics like to portray David as a young boy, but this is disproved by the fact that soon after he slew Goliath, Saul made him a commander of his army. Israelites did not enter military service until the age of twenty. See Numbers 1:2-3.
60 1 Samuel 17:26 NIV.
61 "Slings are still in use among shepherds in Palestine, not only to drive off wild animals but to guide their flocks. A stone cast on this side or that, before or behind, drives the sheep or goats as the shepherd wishes. It was the familiar weapon of hunters, and also of light-armed fighting men, especially among the Benjamites, whose skill was famous. A good slinger could hit at 600 paces, and hence at a short distance the force of the blow given must have been very great." Cunningham Geikie, The Holy Land and the Bible, Vol. I (New York: James Pott & Co., 1899), p. 106.
62 1 Samuel 17:43 NIV.
63 1 Samuel 17:45-46 NIV.
64 That David's victory had a religious aspect is borne out by his placing Goliath's sword in the sanctuary at Nob.
65 Josephus, Antiquities, 6.9.5.
66 The word ariels thus seems to designate men who had Nephilim blood in their veins and whose human features still retained some resemblance to the lion.
67 2 Samuel 23:20-23.
68 Josephus, Antiquities, 7.12.1.
69 Ibid., 7.12.2.
70 Accounts of these last fights with the giants appear in 2 Samuel 21:15-22 and 1 Chronicles 20:4-8.
71 Thompson, Mystery and Lore of Monsters, p. 132. The cubit equals eighteen inches.
72 See 2 Samuel 21:22.
73 See Genesis 6:14.
74 From a March, 1970, news release by Search Foundation, Inc., Washington, D.C. "The Madrid laboratory," the report added, "estimates the age of the sample at approximately 5,000 years. The Centre Technique de Bois gave 4,484 years."
75 Henry H. Halley, Halley's Bible Handbook (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1965), p. 74.
76 Genesis 9:26-27 NIV.
77 Genesis 11:1-9. That place afterward was called Babel, says Moses, "because there the Lord confused the language of the whole world."
78 Halley's Bible Handbook, p. 84. The traditional Tower of Babel is located at Borsippa, ten miles southwest of the center of Babylon, but archaeologists commonly believe the actual site was the center of Babylon, in the tower ruins in which Smith found the ancient tablet.
79 No reference given.
80 Pezron, Antiquities of Nations, preface vi.
81 See Josephus, Antiquities, 6.1, where he makes this statement: "For Gomer founded those whom the Greeks now call Galatians, but were then called Gomerites."
82 See Ptolemy, Geography, 6.11 and 13.
83 Pezron, Antiquities of Nations, pp. 13-14.
84 Ibid., pp. 13-16.
85 Pezron gives the following as his sources: Ptolemy, Geography, 6.11, &c. 13; Pliny, 6.16; Mela, 1.2.; Dionysius, Per., 5. 700.
86 Ibid., pp. 17-18.
87 Ibid., pp. 24-25.
88 Ibid., pp. 25, 27.
89 Ibid., p. 26.
90 That is, loosely translated, people of the breeches. See Herodotus, 1.
91 Pezron, Antiquities of Nations, p. 29.
92 Ptolemy, 6.13.
93 Pezron, Antiquities of Nations, pp. 28-30.
94 Ibid., p. 35.
95 Ibid., p. 54.
96 Formerly known as the Euxine Sea.
97 So the name appears in the Parthian Stathmas of Isidore of Charax, who interprets it to mean the conquering Sacae nation. Strabo gives a slightly different spelling, referring to the country as Sacacena.
98 No reference given.
99 Joshua 11:21.
100 Joshua 11:22. Centuries later several giants from this area fought against Israel. The most famous of these was, of course, the champion Philistine warrior Goliath, of Gatli, whom a young David slew with his sling.
101 The Glory of the Old Testament (New York: Villard Books, 1984), p. 108.
102 Because of its exceedingly rich soil, the valley's broad plain became proverbial for its choice "ears of grain." See Isaiah 17:5.
103 The Imperial Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Vol. VI, Patrick Fairbairn, editor (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1957), p. 5.
104 Harry Emerson Fosdick, A Pilgrimage to Palestine (New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1949), p. 33.
105 A. T. Olmstead, History of Palestine and Syria (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1931), p. 23.
106 "The Amorites," writes Roland DeVaux, "were regarded as the successors or the descendants of the legendary giants of prehistory--the Rephaim of Bashan and of Gilead." The Early History of Israel (Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1978), p. 133. The Amorites descended from the fourth son of Canaan. See Genesis 10:16 and 1 Chronicles 1:14.
107 Amos 2:9. The Midrash uses the identical phrase--"tall as cedars"--to describe the giant Anakim and Rephaim. Incidentally, Amorite blood may have run through the veins of the Rephaim giants Sihon and Og, for the scriptures refer to them as descendants of both these peoples.
108 The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol. 1 (New York: KTAV Publishing House, 1969), p. 293.
109 Alfred Edersheim, Bible History (Wilmington, DE: Associated Publishers and Authors, n.d.), p. 193.
110 Isaiah 17:9. The Septuagint gives the best, most explicit rendering.
111 Archaeological excavations at Gezer and other sites in that area "bear out the unusually tall stature of individuals in ancient Palestine." The Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia, Vol. 1 (Chicago: Moody Press, 1972), p. 709.
112 See Joshua 14:15, 21:11.
113 Numbers 13:22.
114 John Garstang, The Foundations of Bible History (London: Constable &Co., 1931), p. 212.
115 Ibid., pp. 212-213.
116 Ibid., p. 213.
117 Joshua left no definite record of such a battle, but see Joshua 11:21-23, which indicates that one took place.
118 Josephus, Antiquities, 5.2.2.
119 For the Jebusites' identification with the Horim, see the Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia, p. 61.
120 Excepting, of course, the land of the Philistines on the coast.
121 Joshua 11:21.
122 Joshua 17:14-18 NIV.
123 Harper's Bible Dictionary (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1985), p. 772.
124Josephus, Antiquities, 5.2.3.
125 Judges 1: UNIV.
126 In campaigns west of the Jordan River, Israel killed thirty-one Canaanite kings. The names of their cities are given in Joshua 12:7-24.
127 See Joshua 13:16; 17:16.
128 Joshua 11:21-23 NASB.
129 The Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol. 5 (New York: KTAV Publishing House, 1901), p. 659.
130 According to Joshua 6:21, the Hebrews destroyed every living thing in Jericho--men and women, young and old, cattle, sheep, and donkeys. But this statement does not say that none escaped, though some read it so.
131 During his excavation work, Dr. John Garstang discovered the ruins of several houses that had been built across the top of the two walls. When the outer wall fell outward, it dragged the inner wall and the houses with it down the hillside. Also see Joshua 2:15.
132 Joshua 6:24.
133 Leon Wood, A Survey of Israel's History (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1970), p. 174.
134 Because of this large grove, Jericho also became known as the "City of Palms." The dates it harvested from the grove were eagerly sought by peoples in the surrounding nations.
135 Midrash, Tan., Beha'aloteka, ed. Vienna, p. 206b.
136 See Joshua 6:2-5.
137 Henry Hart Milman, The History of the Jews, Vol. I (New York: A. C. Armstrong, 1886), p. 265.
138 Josephus, Antiquities, 5.1.6,7.
139 Joseph P. Free, Archaeology and Bible History (Wheaton, IL: Van Kampen Press, 1950), p. 130.
140 L. Sale-Harrison, Palestine: God's Monument of Prophecy (Chicago: Van Kampen Press, 1933), pp. 76-77.
141 Ibid., 77.
142 The Biblical World, Charles F. Pfeiffer, editor (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1966), p. 308.
143 Vol. 5, p. 659.
144 William Garden Blaikie, The Expositor's Bible (London: A. C. Armstrong & Son, 1905), p. 246.
145 Cunningham Geikie, Hours with the Bible, Vol. 2 (New York: James Pott & Co., 1903), p. 463.
146 Josephus, Antiquities, 5.2.3.
147 Ibid., 5.2.3.
148 Thompson, Mystery and Lore of Monsters, p. 132.
149 Most Bible chronologies differ only a few hundred years on the creation, but scholars accept Ussher's as the most accurate.
150 Cain's brief biography, by the way, contains two references to the Nephilim. The first occurs in Genesis 4:13, just after he murdered his brother Abel. Judged by God and sentenced to wander all his days in the lands to the east, a crestfallen Cain moaned: "My punishment is more than I can bear. Today you are driving me from the land, and I will be hidden from your presence; I will be a restless wanderer on the earth, and whoever finds me will kill me" [emphasis mine]. "Not so;" the Lord reassured him, "if anyone kills Cain, he will suffer vengeance seven times over." Then the Almighty put a mark on Cain so that no one he encountered in his wanderings would dare kill him. The second reference occurs in the next statement: "After this he went out from the Lord's presence and lived in the land of Nod east of Eden. There he built a city." A city? For whom?
151 Ms. Hawkes, of course, viewed these people as manifestations of early humanity.
152 Jacquetta Hawkes, The Atlas of Early Man (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1976), p. 40.
153 Ibid., p. 41.
154 Carl Whiting Bishop, Man from the Farthest Past, Vol. 7 (Washington, DC: The Smithsonian Series, 1949), p. 298.
155 Hawkes, Atlas of Early Man, pp. 43-44.
156 In his Cratylus, Plato (c. 400 B.C.) mentioned a similar tradition. "Do you not know that the heroes are demigods?" he wrote. "... All of them
157 See Alexandrine Text.
158 Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 1.3.1; Philo, The Giants, 2.6.
159 1 Enoch 6:1-8; 7:1-6. Also see the Zohar (l:58a)
160 Zeus, the god of the heavens and supreme deity of the ancient Greeks, was called Jupiter by the Romans. In his earthly life, Jupiter was a mighty giant. (See Giants Who Became Gods)
161 Unger's Commentary on the Old Testament, Vol. I (Chicago: Moody Press, 1981), p. 37.
162 C. F. Keil and F. Delitzsch, Commentary on the Old Testament, Vol. I (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., n.d.), pp. 131-138.
163 Humans were later created in this same image. In Genesis 1:27, as He was about to create Adam, the Almighty Angel of the Lord said to the angelic host: "Let us make man in our image, after our likeness," i.e., in the likeness of angels.
164 The Geography of Strabo, 7.25.
165 See Niddah 6la.
166 Bochart, Geog. Sac., p. 362.
167 Deuteronomy 2: 8-12, 19-23 NASB.
168 Amos 2:9 NASB.
169 Philip Hitti, History of Syria (New York: Macmillan, 1951), p. 195.
170 Numbers 21:21-22 NASB. Until Sihon came and took it from them, this land east of the Jordan was possessed by the Moabites.
171 See Psalm 136:17-22, where they are spoken of in the same breath with Pharaoh.
172 To get some idea of how fast giants could run, see Maximinus.
173 See The Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol. 11 (New York: KTAV Publishing House, 1901), p. 335.
174 Deuteronomy 2:33.
175 Josephus, Antiquities, 4.5.2.
176 See Numbers 21:16-18, for an account of the first well the Hebrews dug and the song they sang.
177 Geikie, Hours with the Bible, Vol. 2, pp. 400-401.
178 Ibid., adapted from Numbers 21:27-30.
179 See Numbers 32:41-42; Deuteronomy 3:14.
180 Josephus, Antiquities, 4.5.3.
181 Geikie, Hours with the Bible, Vol. 2, p. 402.
182 Cyril Graham, "The Ancient Bashan and the Cities of Og," Cambridge Essays (1858). Quoted by Jamieson, Fausset and Brown, Commentary on the Old and New Testaments, Vol. I, p. 628.
183 Ibid.
184 After their conquest of Canaan, Joshua reminded the tribes of the help they had received from the hornets. To the people gathered before him, he said: "This is what the Lord, the God of Israel, says: '... The citizens of Jericho fought against you, as did also the Amorites, Perizzites, Canaanites, Hittites, Girgashites, Hivites and Jebusites, but I gave them into your hands. I sent the hornet ahead of you, which drove them out before you--also the two Amorite kings. You did not do it with your own sword and bow. So I gave you a land on which you did not toil and cities you did not build; and you live in them and eat from vineyards and olive groves that you did not plant.'"
185 Deuteronomy 3:4-5, 14.
186 Deuteronomy 3:11.
187 Adam Clarke, Clarke's Commentary, Vol. I (Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1977), a reprint of the 1851 edition, pp. 744-745.
188 The Israelites ranked these conquests with their deliverance from Egypt and their passage through the Red Sea. Thus, in Psalms 135 and 136, the overthrow of Sihon and Og are given equal space with the downfall of Pharaoh.
189 Some scholars identify "the land of Retenu" with Canaan.
land of Retenu" with Canaan.
190 Ira M. Price, The Monuments and the Old Testament (Philadelphia: Judson Press, 1925), p. 250.
191 Also called the Uzim or Zuzim.

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